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  How to Use a Heat Press Machine – 7 Easy Steps to You Get Started
Napisane przez: qhrtghte - 2 godzin(y) temu - Forum: Photoshop - Brak odpowiedzi

If you’re new to heat press machines then look no further. This is the basic guide on how to get started with a heat press machine.

    What is a Heat Press Machine?

    People keep asking how to use a heat press machine.

    Some even ask what it is.

    A heat press machine, heat transfer printing, t shirt heat press or simply t shirt press is the modern, no-fuss way of printing artwork onto t-shirts.

    It is a great alternative to the classic screen printing.

    Of course, when it comes to quality and longevity, screen printing still wins the game.

    But from the regular customers’ point of view, they can’t tell the difference between a screen printed tee and one from a t shirt press.

    This is a good thing for t-shirt entrepreneurs because not only is heat press printing easy and affordable to do, it also makes custom t-shirt printing possible.

    With screen printing, the customers have to order in large quantities or else it would be too expensive per piece.

    But with heat press machine or t shirt press, it’s still affordable even if they order one or one thousand.

    No wonder the t shirt heat press is a favorite of many t-shirt entrepreneurs.

    If you just bought one, you might be wondering how to use a roll heat press.

    Well, here is a basic guide on how to use the machine.

    Using the Machine

    As we all know, not all heat press machines are created equal.

    That’s why it’s not uncommon or unusual to ask how to use a heat press machine.

    There are those machines that are just functional (very basic) which is good for small jobs and home use.

    They’re much more affordable and could be perfect if you’re just starting out and you prefer to save a few hundred bucks.

    The professional machines are geared for making bulk orders.

    They have a much bigger platen (metal board) for a bigger working area to cater large garments.

    The professional t shirt press is also complete with more sophisticated time, temperature, and pressure settings.

    This is perfect for t-shirt entrepreneurs who are planning to offer orders by the hundreds in the future.

    But whether you’re using the basic or the pro, heat press machines are basically operated the same way.

    Here are step-by-step instructions on how to use a heat press machine:

    Turn on the power by flipping the on/off switch

    Turn the thermostat knob to the right until you see the red heating light

    When the thermometer indicates the desired temperature for your transfer, turn the knob back to the left until the heating light turns off. The heating light will go on and off to regulate your desired temperature

    If your machine has a digital timer, press it to start the timer and when you hear the alarm, press stop to reset

    Lift up the handle to open the press

    Lay out t-shirt and lay Transfer Paper onto shirt facing down

    Bring the handle down. The handle should lock firmly in place

    Set the timer based on the instructions on your Transfer Paper

    Lift the handle to open the press

    Peel the Transfer Paper from the shirt

    Allow at least 24 hours for the print to “lock” before washing the t-shirts

    Tips When Using a Heat Press

    Don’t be scared of applying too much heat because it takes a lot of heat to transfer the artwork properly and evenly.

    If you don’t apply a lot of heat, the artwork might not stick to the shirt properly and would cause issues during washing.

    If you’re scared of burning the tee shirt, sample print on an old shirt you don’t mind burning.

    It’s always scary on the first few tries but your confidence will eventually develop as you get the hang of printing shirts and eventually know how to use a heat press machine.

    Different Types Of Industrial Printing Machines

    In the industrial set up of the economy, the printing machine is growing in large numbers. Different printing techniques and processes are used by every industry for effective communication. Any machine used in printing ink on the substrate (printing medium) which can be cloth, paper or plastic, is referred to as the printing machinery. By applying pressure to the substrate, the printing machinery transfers the ink on the printing medium resting on an inked platform composed of movable type. The development of industrial printing machines changed a lot of things in the world. It would make transfer and preservation of historical records, scientific findings, and knowledge easy and possible. There's a great advancement in the printing machinery introduced in the market today given the improvement in science and technology. There's a competition in the industry, as many companies are now making printing press. As every company is introducing better features and making an effort to overcome the other competitors, this has led to the introduction of many enhanced features in printing machinery. With the introduction of various features in these types of machinery, printing is now easier to be done than it was in earlier days.

    Today, printing machinery is available in many sizes to suit different needs. Bigger sizes of printing machinery are available for heavy-duty printing or big-time printing businesses. You can get small and medium sizes too for small and medium printing businesses. The machinery size determines the volume of printing that will be done in a day, to a greater extent. When compared with small-sized printing machinery, the heavy industrial printing machines can print a lot of things per hour or regularly. There are different types of printing machines for printing on a different medium since different printing machines make use of different printing technology. Each of the below-mentioned printing machinery is meant to serve a particular purpose. You must consider your printing needs or the type of printing that you are doing before you want to buy or order for your printing machine. Several factors such as the size, the type of printing done, the seller, the brand, and others determine the cost.

    Types Of Printing Machines

            Digital Printers
            Ink-jet Printers
            Screen Printers
            Embossing Machines
            Flexographic Printing Machine
            Letterpress Printing Machines
            Offset Printers
            Laser printers
            Wireless Printers
            3D Printers
            Thermographic Printers
            Electrostatic Printing Machine
            Pad Printers
            Rotogravure Printing Machines
    Attractive Sublimation Printer Seeks the Perfect Heat Press

    The importance of matching the right heat-transfer press with your dye-sublimation printer

    by Lily Hunter, Product Manager for Dye-Sublimation Technology at Roland DGA

    Okay, so you’ve got a dye-sublimation printer in mind, but you’re wondering what kind of heat press will complete your perfect dye-sublimation workflow? There are many options out-there and choosing the right heat press isn’t easy. Much depends on the type of products and applications that are in your business plan, and other factors, like size, type, and cost will need to be considered.

    Heat presses are designed for specific applications and come in all styles, sizes and with very different price tags – presses can run from $1K to $100K. The following tips outline some of the most important points to keep-in-mind when purchasing a heat press to combine with your dye-sublimation printer.

    Make the Investment – For the Long-Term

    Why invest in high-quality dye-sublimation printing technology like the Roland DG XT-640 or RT-640 that produces a high-quality product, just to compromise on a cheap heat press and shoot yourself in the foot? If you base your decision solely on price, then you may regret it in the long run. Whether you’re looking for a small-format or large-format heat press, cheaper models simply don’t offer the build quality or level of sustained heat and pressure that is required to produce professional results when transferring graphics.

    Some of the cheaper clam, swing away and flatbed heat press has flimsy heater blocks made from thin materials that heat up fast but cool down too quickly – failing to maintain an even heat. Whereas a machine with a heavy platen takes longer to heat up but maintains a regular heat and ensures that each press has the same consistency and quality of image and color. When physically comparing heat presses, trust your instincts. If a press doesn’t feel robust and well-made, then it most likely isn’t and probably won’t perform properly.


    Does size matter?

    Firstly, you’ll need to think about what your end game is, i.e., what are you producing and what do you plan to produce. Heat presses range in heat block sizes from around 6”x 8” for a light-use press, right up to oversized 44”x 64” and beyond. Right now, you’re probably considering either a desktop-sized press for apparel or product customization, or a shop-sized press that will allow you to branch out into fabrics, soft-signage and larger scale sublimation.

    The size of heat presses are so many and varied. As a rule, it’s always better to think bigger to allow yourself the ability to expand your product range. However, if you want something strictly for simple customizations of t-shirts and apparel, a large flatbed or calender press can sometimes be counter-productive and you’ll find that a smaller swing-away or clam press for different apparel sizes is actually more efficient. You may find that a couple of these smaller sized heat presses that can be operated by multiple people might be more effective for your production model than one large-format machine.

    Consistent heat

    Heat presses need to be heated to about 400 degrees fahrenheit for sublimation inks to transfer from the paper to the polymer fibers. This transfer has to be smooth and even for the process to work properly and for the image transfer to be consistent from one pressing to the next. Some heat presses may look really high-tech and snazzy, but under-the-cover it may be a different story.

    Another issue with cheaper heat presses is having too few heater windings (heater coils) in heater blocks or heater windings that are too sparsely placed. This causes cold spots and inconsistent transfer. The more windings a press has, the quicker it will heat up and regain any heat loss between jobs.

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  Narrow UD tapes to bridge the ATL-AFP gap
Napisane przez: qhrtghte - 2 godzin(y) temu - Forum: Photoshop - Brak odpowiedzi

It is well understood that automated tape laying (ATL) and automated fiber placement (AFP) were the enabling technologies in the application of carbon fiber composites in major aerostructures for the Boeing 787 and the Airbus A350 aircraft. Prior to the development of these planes, composites had been applied in gradually increasing amounts in commercial aircraft for more than 30 years, but mainly in secondary structures using hand layup and some automated manufacturing processes.

    With the 787 and the A350, however, Boeing (Seattle, Wash., U.S.) and Airbus (Toulouse, France) responded to demand for lighter weight aircraft, which accelerated adoption of composite materials and processes for use in fuselage skins, stringers, frames, wing skins, wing spars, wing boxes and tail structures. ATL and AFP led the charge, allowing each OEM, and their suppliers, to efficiently lay down large amounts of prepregged UD-tape and tows.

    ATL found a place fabricating wing structures, which, being modestly contoured, took advantage of the wide format (3, 6 or 12 inches) of the tape products, which could be laid down quickly. However, what ATL offered in speed and volume it sacrificed in conformability.

    AFP, on the other hand, which lays down multiple tows 0.125 to 0.5 inch wide, found a place fabricating fuselage and other more contoured structures that demand maximum flexibility and conformability. However, what ATL offered in conformability it sacrificed in speed and volume.

    Further, as enabling as these technologies were, they clearly reflected the state of ATL/AFP art at the time of the planes’ initial development, almost 20 years ago now. Indeed, the production pace of the 787 and the A350 (each now less than 10/month in light of the coronavirus pandemic) is well-aligned with previous-generation ATL/AFP technologies, which are relatively slow. These technologies also depend on human operators to provide in-process visual inspection and quality control, checking for the laps, gaps, wrinkles, foreign object debris (FOD) and other flaws endemic to the automated laydown process. This quality control step represents a significant bottleneck in the manufacture of composite structures.

    But as commercial aircraft manufacturers look to the future (well beyond the coronavirus pandemic) and the aircraft they will develop — particularly new single-aisle (NSA) programs to replace the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 — shipset volumes are likely to be on the order of 60-100 per month. This demands composite materials and process capability orders of a magnitude more efficient than those used to fabricate structures for the 787 and the A350.

    Honeycomb panel applications

    EconCore has granted plastic film company Renolit a license for the continuous production of honeycomb panel.

    Renolit has reportedly used the honeycomb in its Gorcell range of products for automotive, outdoor kitchens, truck superstructures, and bakery panels applications. More recently, Renolit has produced products for gardens, balconies and terraces made with honeycomb panels.

    According to EconCore, the honeycomb has helped Renolit improve panel planarity, reduce golf ball effect, and create smooth, scratch free surfaces.

    The Renolit Gorcell production process includes film unwinding, vacuum forming, core calibration, skin layer lamination, panel calibration and cutting.

    This story uses material from EconCore, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

    Scanning electron microscopy and digital image correlation observations reveal the failure mechanisms of overmolded hybrid composites. The failure behavior of overmolded hybrid composites is mainly CFRT laminates failure for all cases. The evolution of non-uniform strain fields indicates that the fracture of overmolded thermoplastic composites may initiate at the edges and spread out to the far fields.


    Wood is a renewable, ecological raw material employed to manufacture high quality furniture and everyday products. Its versatile utilization in numerous branches of the wood industry exerts considerable influence on the intensive exploitation of wood resources. The above-mentioned factors clearly show that there are reasons to replace traditional panel materials, such as plywood (PW), particleboard (PB), oriented strand board (OSB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), and high-density fiberboard (HDF), with lightweight sandwich honeycomb panels. These panels are characterized by relatively high strength and stiffness (Khan 2006; Schwingshackl et al. 2006; Jen and Chang 2008; Smardzewski 2013). According to Negro et al.(2011), the density of light honeycomb panels should not exceed 500 kg/m3.

    The use of honeycomb panels with paper cores manufactured from hexagonal cells is quite widespread. However, during the manufacturing process these cells acquire irregular shapes of non-regular hexagons (Xu et al. 2008). In a study conducted by Smardzewski and Prekrat (2012) it was demonstrated that the core of a honeycomb panel made of irregular hexagonal cells placed between two HDF panels equalizes quite well the stresses that develop in the facings. The above researchers observed that the stiffness and strength of the honeycomb panels were affected significantly by the paper grammage as well as the cell shapes and dimensions.

    Honeycomb structures find widespread application in the motor, airplane, and military industries (Schmueser and Wickliffe 1987). In the furniture industry, due to economic reasons, honeycomb panels with thicknesses exceeding 25 mm (Barboutis and Vassiliou 2005; Smardzewski 2015; Smardzewski and Jasińska 2016) are preferred. Furthermore, physico-chemical properties of honeycomb panels with hexagonal cells manufactured from light metals are commonly known (Paik et al. 1999; Schwingshackl et al. 2006; Said and Tan 2008).

    To increase the stiffness of wood-based honeycomb panels, the type and thickness of their facings (Meraghni et al. 1999; Sam-Brew et al. 2011; Chen and Yan 2012) were changed, the paper used to manufacture them was impregnated, and the dimensions as well as the shapes of the core cells were changed (Majewski and Smardzewski 2012). In addition, recommendations were made regarding factors that should be taken into account during the production process of paper cores of honeycomb panels intended for the furniture industry (Sam-Brew et al. 2011). For the core with hexagonal cells, these suggestions included: cell dimension, filling height, filling density, as well as cell orientation with respect to the panel sheet. In addition, it was confirmed many times that the honeycomb panel stiffness depends on the stiffness of the external facings. On the basis of a four-point bending, it was demonstrated that to reduce deflection of a honeycomb panel with a paper core and wood base facings, core cells should be as small as possible, whereas the core height should be as large as possible (Sam-Brew et al. 2011). It has been shown that honeycomb panels have higher values of shear modulus and higher stiffness when planes of common core cell walls are oriented parallel to the longer side of the panel (Bitzer 1997). The enlargement of the inclination angle of the cell walls increases the panel density and, by doing so, it significantly enhances its strength and stiffness (Majewski and Smardzewski 2013).

    Hexagonal, regular core cells ensure panel isotropy, whereas the elongated cells affect their orthotropy (C?té et al. 2004; Smardzewski and Prekrat 2012). The honeycomb panel core and facing isotropy exert a positive influence on the processes of their cutting by minimizing the amount of waste during the production process. Simultaneously, isotropy assures the uniform bending stiffness in mutually perpendicular directions. In contrast, orthotropy interferes with panel cutting efficiency, although it does has an advantageous influence on improved stiffness and strength of rectangular panels along one preferred direction. This is an exceptionally useful property when designing shelves and horizontal partitions in cabinet furniture. Rectangular cells constitute a special case of core polygonal cells. Their shape and arrangement in the honeycomb panel core can have a crucial impact on improved multilayer panel stiffness. Based on the available literature, it has not yet been analyzed to what extent elongated, rectangular paper core cells affect the mechanical properties of furniture honeycomb panels and the orthotropic strength of such panels.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the orientation of the rectangular cells of the paper core on the mechanical properties of three-layer furniture panels. The cognitive objective of the experiments was also to ascertain relative density and elasticity constants of the designed cells. The authors decided to compare the results of the empirical experiments of cell elasticity moduli with the results of analytical calculations. The practical goal of the investigation was to show the possibilities of substituting cores with hexagonal cells used in furniture panels with cores with rectangular cells.

    Global Unidirectional Tape (UD Tape) Industry Research and Trend Analysis Report

    In addition to lightweight, UD tape also has the advantages of thermoforming and other advantages, and can be used as a structural supplementary material. Automobile exhaust emissions are one of the main culprits of greenhouse gas sources, which also increase the environment and manufacturers' costs. By using new materials such as UD tape, the vehicle can be made lighter and carbon emissions can be reduced. However, these fiber tapes are expensive and difficult to mass produce. To solve this problem, five European partners funded by the European Union gathered together to carry out a project called FORTAPE, covering the entire industrial chain. The project requires a wide range of beneficiaries to develop new integrated technologies that make the most effective use of materials and energy, so that UD tape can be better applied to vehicles and aircraft.

    UD tapes using PP are easy to thermoform and can also be formed into complex shapes. In an EU initiative, it was first proposed to use a cost-effective method to produce unidirectional fiber belts, which can be used to manufacture and reinforce parts on cars and airplanes. This solution will make parts lighter and more environmentally friendly. UD tape can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of plastic parts, and can also be used to manufacture structural parts, strengthen and thermoform multilayers.

    UD tape production focuses on three main axes: UD tape manufacturing, parts manufacturing, and process and part modeling. At present, three different fiber impregnation technologies have been studied internationally to develop innovative processes for manufacturing UD carbon fiber and glass fiber tape to increase fiber content. The use of UD tape as a window regulator to enhance automation will help meet the cycle and output requirements of the automotive industry. At the same time, a window frame manufacturing process using fire-resistant polyamide UD tape will be developed for the aviation industry.

    The initial development focus has been primarily on automotive interiors, including seating area components, door side-impact beams, cross-car beams, brake pedals, steering-column holders, airbag modules, and front ends. “At this time of increasing fuel requirements for automotive, OEMs are putting a lot of emphasis on lightweighting,” says Calvin Nichols, market development manager for automotive seating at BASF in Wyandotte, Mich. BASF refers to the technology as “continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic” or CFRT, while Pittsburgh-based Lanxess typically calls it “nylon composite sheet hybrid technology.” Similarly, Engel in York, Pa., refers to its process as Organomelt and KraussMaffei, Florence, Ky., calls its version FiberForm. The technology has also been described as “organic sheet overmolding.”

    Whatever the label, this technology also has significant potential for use in other markets. There are variants of the technology in development that will further the use of thermoplastic composites in a range of industries that are seeking lightweight but high-strength material options, as well as the low cost, automation, and short cycle times possible with injection molding.

    Both Engel and KraussMaffei first demonstrated the technology in two elaborate molding cells at the K2010 show in Dusseldorf, Germany. There, Engel molded a steering-column holder and KraussMaffei a door side-impact beam. Both used Tepex composite sheets from Germany’s Bond-Laminates GmbH and nylon overmolding compounds from Lanxess. (Lanxess recently acquired Bond-Laminates.) The two demonstrations used robots (linear or six-axis) to preheat the sheet in an oven at 300 C for 30-40 sec and then transfer the hot sheet to the injection mold. Closing the mold preformed the sheet, and then more nylon was injected over it in specific areas. Cycle times ranged from 33 to 55 sec. (the latter limited by oven-heating capacity).

    Engel’s part, with its more complex geometry, was laser-trimmed outside the mold. In the case of KraussMaffei, which compounded the long-glass overmolding compound direct from roving on its IMC injection molding compounder, the robot transferred the net-shaped part to a quality-check station after molding.

    The two material suppliers displayed applications for the technology at K2010. Lanxess showed an Audi A8 front-end reinforcement molded by Germany’s Magna Decoma Exterior Systems, containing both aluminum and Tepex inserts overmolded with nylon 6. BASF displayed a seat back from Faurecia of France consisting of woven-glass/nylon sheet from California-based Performance Materials Corp., overmolded with a specially developed 35%-glass nylon 6 compound (BASF’s Ultramid CompoSIT XA3232) that combines stiffness, ductility, and Class-A-type finish. The part weighs about 20% less than standard seat backs and is expected to be commercial within the next two years.


    Sources at these four suppliers foresee dramatic growth potential, starting with auto interior components but extending to exterior, chassis, and power-train applications. They also envision applications in aeronautics, trains, trucks, agricultural equipment, machinery manufacturing, and renewable-energy systems.

    BASF’s Nichols says, “Glass in a unidirectional form is much stronger than other forms of glass or ferrous and nonferrous metals. Such a sheet composite overmolded with nylon 6 has tensile strength as much as five times that of metals. Strength-to-weight ratio is dramatically improved over metals—twice that of steel and three-to-four times higher than a standard injection molded glass-filled thermoplastic. Stiffness-to-weight ratio with the continuous-glass composite laminate overmolded with nylon is eight times as much as steel.”

    Other thermoplastics considered as candidates for this technology include PP, PBT, PES, PEEK, nylon 612, and possibly nylon 66, depending in large part on how well they meet strict flammability requirements.

    Meanwhile, the machinery suppliers both have recently introduced new equipment to further progress in this nascent technology. Engel is recommending its new v-duo vertical large tonnage machines for Organomelt systems. Hydraulically powered with energy-saving servo-driven pumps, they are offered in five sizes from 400 to 2300 metric tons. The larger sizes are aimed at continuous-fiber composites, with their easy mold access to facilitate loading of reinforcing fabrics and organic sheets and tapes.

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  You're (Probably) Not Salting Your Food Enough
Napisane przez: qhrtghte - 2 godzin(y) temu - Forum: Photoshop - Brak odpowiedzi

Season as you go

    In our Epi recipes, you'll find seasoning mentioned throughout the process: boiling water is salted; sautéed vegetables are seasoned while cooking; meat is sprinkled with salt and pepper before cooking; and dishes are finished with a final seasoning to taste.

    Each of these steps helps infuse flavor throughout the cooking process, so that the final dish is as delicious as possible. It's not enough to simply sprinkle a little salt on your food at the end of cooking—imagine if you roasted Thanksgiving's turkey and only sprinkled on salt at the end. The first bite might taste okay, but only the exterior is seasoned. Every other bite would be dry and bland.

    Vegetables, pasta, meats, they are all the same—in each step of cooking, you need to coax flavor out by adding a little salt, which helps draw out water and concentrate the food's natural flavors, as well as spices, which infuses flavor throughout its structure. By seasoning throughout the cooking process, every bite is infused with flavor, not just the exterior.

    And it's key to remember that last "season to taste" instruction. Yes, we've written a recipe (and tested it several times, by the way), making sure to include the amount of salt, pepper, and spices that yield a flavorful end dish.

    But those amounts can vary depending on your ingredients—especially vegetables—which can vary dramatically in terms of flavor. So before you serve, always (always, always) make sure to taste and season. Even if you've followed a recipe to a T, in the end, you are the cook, and you're responsible for making it taste delicious.

    Want to infuse even more flavor into your recipes? Finish them off with a final sprinkling of an herbed salt, adding flavor and color to boot.

    History of Sauces

    The word “sauce” is a French word that means a relish to make our food more appetizing.  Sauces are liquid or semi-liquid foods devised to make other foods look, smell, and taste better, and hence be more easily digested and more beneficial.

    Because of the lack of refrigeration in the early days of cooking, meat, poultry, fish, and seafood didn’t last long.  Sauces and gravies were used to mask the flavor of tainted foods.

    The main course, or primae mensai varied both in the number and elaboration of dishes.  Roast and boiled meat, poultry, game or other meat delicacies would be served.  No dish was complete without its highly flavoured and seasoned sauce.  Contrary to present day preference, the main object seemed to be to disguise the natural taste of food – possibly to conceal doubtful freshness, possibly to demonstrate the variety of costly spices available to the host.  Sometimes so many ingredients were used in a sauce it was impossible to single out any one flavour.  One Roman cook bitterly complained that some of his fellow cooks ‘When they season their dinners they don’t use condiments for seasoning, but screech owls, which eat out the intestines of the guests alive’.  Apicius wrote at the end of one of his recipes for a particularly flavoursome sauce, ‘No one at table will know what he is eating’.  These sauces were usually thickened with wheat flour or crumbled pastry.  Honey was often incorporated into a ‘sweet-sour’ dish or sauce.

    Highly flavoured sauces often containing as many as a dozen ingredients were extensively used to mask the natural flavours of Roman food.  The most commonly used seasoning was liquamen, the nearest equivalent today being a very strong fish stock, with anchovies as its main ingredient.  This was so popular that it was factory-produced in many towns in the Roman empire.

    Homemade Black Bean Sauce

    This is one of the most versatile Chinese sauces that goes well with almost any ingredients, and is also suitable for stir frying, baking, grilling, and steaming.

    I recommend that everyone who loves Chinese food have a jar of pre-made black bean sauce in their fridge. Here are the reasons:

            The sauce is extremely versatile. You can view it as soy sauce alternative, only more flavorful.
            The sauce is healthier than many other Chinese sauces because it contains less sugar.
            The sauce has a bit of thickening powder by itself, so you don’t always need to use extra cornstarch to thicken the sauce. One more prep step eliminated!
            Not only can you make stir-fried dishes with it, you can also use it to bake or steam food, marinate meat, or serve it as dipping sauce or noodle salad dressing.
    Introducing Homemade Black Bean Sauce

    Yes, you can buy bottled black bean sauce from the grocery store, but the homemade version contains more fresh aromatics, does not use additional starch to thicken the sauce, and contains no additives. I always suggest that you make your own for a more delicious and healthier option.

    Basic ingredient – fermented black beans

    The most important ingredient is fermented black bean. It has a deep umami flavor that is similar to soy sauce, but different in flavor and even richer. This is the base of the sauce.

    Thanks to almighty Amazon, you can even purchase the fermented black beans online without a trip to grocery store. However, if there is an Asian market nearby, I highly recommend you to get your ingredients there because it will be way cheaper. These black beans can stay in your fridge forever, so you can store them if you don’t have time to use them immediately.Once you get the fermented black beans, the rest of the ingredients are quite easy to find and it’s more likely that you will already have them at home.

    Seasoning powder

                Seasoning blends are mixture of ground or whole spices, herbs, seeds, or other flavorings. Seasonings such as apple pie spice are blends of several spices and are ready to use. Seasoning includes herbs and spices, which are themselves frequently referred to as “seasonings”. Seasoning includes a large or small amount of salt being added to a preparation. Other seasonings like black pepper and basil transfer some of their flavor to the food. A well designed dish may combine seasonings that complement each other. In addition to the choice of herbs and seasoning, the timing of when flavors are added will affect the food that is being cooked. In various cultures, meat may be existing as a seasoning techniques

    Preparation of seasoning powders

                The ingredients for making sweet potato seasoning powder such as sweet potato, onion, garlic and ginger were peeled and cut into small pieces. They were spread in the tray and placed under sunlight for about two days. And then 40 gm of dried sweet potato, 15 gm of dried onion, 8 gm of dried garlic, 1 gm of dried ginger, and 1 gm of dried black pepper were separately roasted in pan at 70 oC for 2 minutes. After that, the roasted ingredients were ground in the blender until all are well mixed and powder. During grinding, 30 gm of sugar and 5 gm of salt were added. The powder was screened with 100 mesh screen. Finally, as obtained sweet potato powder seasoning was added into airtight glass bottle.


    Herbs and spices are essential to the art of soup making. In some soups, they're the central theme — but generally, they serve to enhance and complement the other ingredients. Frontier offers a full selection of soup seasoning, including:

            Basil: Good with tomato-base soups and many vegetables.
            Bay Leaf: Used in stews and with beans and vegetables. Remove the leaves before serving.
            Cayenne: Adds spicy hotness and may be used in place of black pepper.
            Celery Seed: A strong, distinctive flavor, to be used sparingly. Whole seeds should be cooked for at least an hour, while ground seed may be added towards the end of cooking.
            Chervil: A pungent addition to many thin soups, sometimes substituted for parsley.
            Chili Powder: Most often found in chili but also delicious in other soups.
            Chipotle powder: Adds heat and a touch of smoky flavor to Mexican style soups, bean soups or corn chowder.
            Cumin: Good in vegetable soups, chili, and other bean soups, as well as Mexican and Indian soups.
            Curry: A delicious addition to soups containing grains, vegetables, lentils, or split peas.
            Dill: Fragrant and delicious in potato or onion soups. Dill weed is best added near the end of cooking, while dill seed needs to cook for a long period and is best used ground.
            Fennel: Used sparingly, fennel's strong taste adds a delightful and distinctive touch to squash soup and beef stew.
            Garlic: Garlic adds instant flavor to almost any soup. It is available in a variety of forms—fresh, powdered, granulated, and flaked. Granulated is easy to measure and dissolves nicely if allowed to cook a few minutes before serving. Powdered garlic is less strong than granulated.
            Marjoram: Flavorful in minestrone, onion, chicken, and potato soups.
            Onion: Many soups start with the sautéing of onions, and for good reason! Onion is available in the same forms as garlic.
            Parsley: Parsley may be added to almost any soup. It adds lovely color and a refreshing taste. While fresh parsley is sometimes tough in soups, dried parsley is consistently tasty, easy to measure, colorful, and delicate.
            Rosemary: The clean, strong flavor of rosemary perks up vegetable or chicken soups. (Use it with a light touch.)
            Sea Salt: Salt soups sparingly. Use it to coax out other flavors rather than dominate your dish. Sea salt contains trace minerals and is free of additives sometimes found in table salt.
            Thyme: Release the distinctive flavor and aroma of thyme by crushing it between your fingers as you sprinkle it in vegetable and rice soups.
    You can also use dulse flakes (right out of the bag or toasted) in soups—especially Asian-style ones—to enhance flavor, boost nutrition and provide salt.

    Soups are a great place to experiment with spices. There are no hard and fast rules about what seasonings to use in what soups, but if you're feeling the need for some direction, here's a good place to start—the following list gives you some suggestions for using the spices described above and some others commonly used in soups:

            Bean soups: cumin, garlic, onions, parsley, sage, savory, thyme
            Beef, chicken and turkey soups: allspice, basil, bay leaf, cinnamon, curry powder, dill, garlic, ginger, mace, marjoram, nutmeg, onions, paprika, parsley, rosemary, saffron, sage, savory, thyme
            Fruit soups: anise, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, mace, mint, nutmeg, rosemary
            Seafood soups: basil, chives, curry powder, dill, garlic, ginger, marjoram, oregano, parsley, sage, savory, tarragon, thyme
            Tomato soups: basil, bay leaf, chives, garlic, oregano, parsley, rosemary, savory, tarragon, thyme
            Vegetable soups: basil, caraway, cayenne, chives, dill, garlic, marjoram, nutmeg, oregano, savory, tarragon, thyme
    And don't forget soup-enhancing seasonings at the table — vegetarian soy Bac'Uns  make great additions at the table to sprinkle on a bowl of potato, bean or creamy soups. And try toasted sesame seeds on Asian or vegetable soups.

    Frontier also offers several spice blends, each with its own unique flavor. Blends most suitable for soups include All-Seasons Salt, Celery Salt, Garlic Salt, Herbal Seasoning (no salt), Italian Seasoning, Mexican Seasoning and Onion Salt.

    Of course, all-purpose and ethnic blends like hot pot seasoning are always good bets, too.

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Napisane przez: qhrtghte - 2 godzin(y) temu - Forum: Photoshop - Brak odpowiedzi

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a strong, tough, waxy, nonflammable synthetic resin produced by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene. Known by such trademarks as Teflon, Fluon, Hostaflon, and Polyflon, PTFE is distinguished by its slippery surface, high melting point, and resistance to attack by almost all chemicals. These properties have made it familiar to consumers as the coating on nonstick cookware; it is also fabricated into industrial products, including bearings, pipe liners, and parts for valves and pumps.

    PTFE was discovered serendipitously in 1938 by Roy Plunkett, an American chemist for E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (now DuPont Company), who found that a tank of gaseous tetrafluoroethylene refrigerant had polymerized to a white powder. During World War II it was applied as a corrosion-resistant coating to protect metal equipment used in the handling of radioactive material for the Manhattan Project. For more than a decade after the war, PTFE saw little commercial use, owing to difficulties encountered in devising methods for processing the slippery, high-melting material. DuPont released its trademarked Teflon-coated nonstick cookware in 1960.

    PTFE Fine Powders

    Chemours is a leading producer of fluoropolymers that include Teflon? PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) fine powder resins.

    These fine powders may be paste-extruded to create continuous-length PTFE articles such as tubes, tapes, and membranes. PTFE fine powder is the preferred fluoropolymer for many applications, including breathable hydrophobic membranes, aerospace/automotive hoses, and high-performance wires and cables.

    Features and Benefits

    This family of fine powder fluoropolymer resins offers a wide range of characteristics that include:

    Excellent thermal stability

    High stress crack resistance

    High reduction ratio

    Excellent color and clarity

    Polytetrafluroethylene ultrafine powder

        PTFE ultra-fine powder can be prepared by irradiation at room temperature, followed by ultrafine grinding. Fresh PTFE material, scrap or recycled PTFE waste, etc., can be used to fabricate ultrafine powder. The use of recycled PTFE or waste to produce ultrafine powder can reduce the cost and achieve the recycling of resources. PTFE ultrafine powder is widely used as a functional additive in the fields of engineering plastics, anticorrosion coatings, nonstick coatings, coil coatings, powder coatings, and inks. Shamrock Technologies (the United States), Solvay Company (Italy), Lubrizol Corporation (Germany), Kitamura Company Ltd. (Japan) and many other companies produce PTFE ultrafine powder. In recent years, domestic Chinese enterprises have also made great progress in the technology of manufacturing PTFE ultrafine powder.
        The particle size of PTFE powder is usually tens to hundreds of microns, which is suitable for producing PTFE sheet and pipe. PTFE ultrafine powder can be made by polymerization, radiation degradation, and thermal cracking. The irradiated PTFE becomes very brittle, and can be further fabricated into ultrafine powder by grinding or air-jetting. The particle size is closely related to the absorbed dose. The higher the absorbed dose, the lower the relative molecular weight of PTFE, and the smaller the particle size of ultrafine powder. At present, PTFE ultrafine powder is mainly prepared by radiation degradation at home and abroad, since high energy beam can effectively break the molecular chains of PTFE at room temperature. For recycled PTFE, a very high absorbed dose is required for the fabrication of PTFE ultrafine powder. Hence, it is normally irradiated by EB accelerators. PTFE ultrafine powder is mainly used as an additive in lubricating oil and grease, ink, paint, engineering plastics, leather, rubber, etc., in order to improve antifriction and scratch-resistance.
    PTFE teflon powder is available as a white powder, often called fine powder.  PTFE fine powder is generally converted into usable articles (shapes, wire insulation and tapes, etc) via paste extrusion, followed by post extrusion heating to remove residual hydrocarbon solvents and to increase material density.

    Products manufactured with genuine Teflon PTFE fine powder are rated for continuous service temperatures up to 260°C (500°F).

    The properties of Teflon PTFE fine powder are very similar to those of standard Teflon? PTFE granular material.

    Insulation for wire and cable, tubing, pipe liners, films, sintered and unsintered tapes, micro-porous membranes, heat shrink tubing, bushings, push/pull cables, profile shapes and other end use components requiring a high performance fluoroplastic material.

    5 Key Products That Are Enhanced With PTFE Micropowders

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micropowders are used as additives in thousands of products. They can add lubricity or improve friction and wear characteristics of base materials. Because PTFE micron powder is milled very fine, it can be compounded in rubber, plastics, or dispersed in liquids. Here are 5 ideal applications:

    Printing Inks

    PTFE lubricant powders are superior to the conventional anti-scuff agents that are used in inks. They enhance the preparation of offset, heat-set, gravure and flexographic inks. They improve the rub and scuff resistance of printed stock. And they reduce “blocking,” the undesirable adhesion of a painted surface to another painted surface or material, reducing rejects.

    In addition, micropowders can be easily dispersed at room temperature to make processing cheaper and more efficient. Their lubrication properties reduce friction so they slide and stack easier, and their temperature resistant properties allow them to be used in temperatures up to 260 °C.

    Coatings and Industrial Finishes

    PTFE powders can be added to many industrial finishes to improve surface lubrication, reduce blocking and promote scuff resistance. For example, they impart abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance and anti-friction properties in bakeware and cookware, and can be used to provide a non-stick surface.

    Most bakeware and cookware are fabricated from strips of steel or aluminum that are pre-treated with a PTFE coating. Micropowders also act as a processing aid during the stamping, folding and cutting manufacturing process.


    PTFE micropowders are added to decorative, masonry, aircraft and marine paints to improve their water resistance, scuff and abrasion resistance, and anti-fouling properties. These powders can also reduce flammability and improve paint’s spreading rate.

    The benefits of micropowder lubricants for paints include:

            Matte-based paints that are traditionally difficult to clean become easier with PTFE micropowders.
            Marine coatings exhibit excellent anti-fouling properties.
            Gloss coatings have a smoother surface and fewer imperfections due to the small particle size.

    Lubricants are added to elastomer formulations to improve the coefficient of friction and wear properties versus solid lubricants, waxes, stearates, soaps, plasticizers and oils.

    Adding lubricant powders to natural rubbers and synthetic elastomers during processing gives finished moldings many of the surface slip characteristics of PTFE. These characteristics include: improved mold release, lower static and dynamic coefficients of surface friction, abrasion resistance, elimination of stick slip and improved tear strength.

    Oil and Grease

    PTFE micropowders are ideal for improving lubrication in applications that experience extreme pressures, temperatures and environments. They are also used in applications where conventional additives such as graphite and molybdenum are unsuitable.

    In addition, PTFE additives offer cleanliness, an important characteristic for greases used in food, pharmaceutical and dairy equipment. Because PTFE is not flammable, it is ideal for applications where the lubricants are exposed to gases and other potential fire hazards.

    PTFE micropowders provide benefits to a wide range of applications for various industries.

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  Separating out foods into component molecules
Napisane przez: qhrtghte - 3 godzin(y) temu - Forum: Photoshop - Brak odpowiedzi

Food is made up of many different chemical can components or parts, including vitamins, minerals, sugars, fibres, water, lipids, proteins and starches.
        In addition to these main nutrient components, many foods contain smaller amounts of biologically active chemicals. In plants, these are referred to as phytochemicals. Scientists can separate out all of these different components of foods.
    Why separate food into its component parts?

    There are many reasons why scientists might want to separate out the component parts of food. For example, the nutrigenomics project investigated why different people respond differently to different foods. It seems that sometimes these variations arise because of differences in our genes. This is because our genes can affect the way that our bodies deal with the chemical components that make up a particular food. As a result, some food can components might be particularly good for some people, and cause problems for others!

    The aim of the nutrigenomics project is to work out which specific food compounds are most helpful (or most harmful) to people with particular food-related diseases, like Crohn’s disease.

    How can different food components be separated?

    A range of different methods can be used to separate specific molecules out of foods using a range of different methods. These methods include: Differential solubility, ion exchange chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, and selective adsorption chromatography.

    Differential solubility

    Some molecules dissolve easily in water; other molecules will dissolve in hexane but not in water. This is because some molecules are more polar than others. Polar molecules dissolve in polar solvents, like water. Non-polar molecules dissolve in non-polar solvents, like hexane. Molecules like sugar are polar, whereas fat molecules are non-polar.

    Ion exchange chromatography

    Molecules have different charges (positive and negative). This property can be used as the basis of separation. The food sample (as a solution) is passed through a column containing beads that are charged. If the beads have a positive charge, negatively charged molecules in the food will attach but positively charged molecules will run easily through the column and can be collected.

    Size exclusion chromatography

    This has a sieving effect. Because molecules have different sizes, they move through a size exclusion chromatography column at different rates. Larger molecules are collected first, smaller molecules are collected last.

    Selective adsorption chromatography

    Because different molecules have different chemical properties, they are more or less able to adsorb (or stick) to materials such as silica gel. This means that they can be separated based on their polarity (degree of surface charge). For example, hydrocarbons (molecules with lots of carbon and hydrogen atoms) have no affinity for silica, whereas alcohols have strong affinity.

    How is the use of easy peel-off end in food packaging?

    The Easy peel off ends(lids), is a metal packaging form with high sealing and certain pressure resistance,is used in food canned packaging. The base material is made of tinplate or aluminum,after punching, drawing and curling, it can be safely opened after opening.

    It is covered with a metal composite membrane or a composite plastic membrane resistant to ultra-high temperature sterilization,with embossed processing, beautiful and easy to open.

    At metal sheet left by the punching process of the base lids can be recycled and reused,the food-grade composite membrane covered is small in thickness and quality, saving natural resources,after the consumer opens the end,  will not cause environmental pollution in case being discarded.

    The peel off end, is widely used,  widely used in the packaging of infant milk powder cans with high safety level,nowadays, meat、fruits、vegetables、coffee、tea and other packaging are gradually used.

    The peel off end varieties are currently used for dry powde、high-temperature sterilization,、with one-way valve ventilation, and also individualized transparent、 printed 、various sizes of large and small, inner ring is 0-shape Or D-shaped, the outer ring is round or square, etc., China uses a lot of two-dimensional code information technology, now has gradually become popular.

    Common types are as follows:

    Peel off end for dry powder packaging does not have high-temperature sterilization technology, is used in canned foods such as milk powder and snack foods, is more common in market.

    Retort peel off end has the characteristics of high temperature sterilization resistance. It can be used in canned foods such as meat, and consumers can easily cook food.

    Peel off end with valve embedded in lid is a one-way pressure relief valve, used in the packaging of fermented foods, such as in canned coffee, to effectively preserve the quality of coffee for a long time.

    Transparent peel off end, consumers can see the food they are tempted, have the characteristics of resistance to ultra-high temperature sterilization, UV resistance, water barrier、oxygen barrier, etc.,in recent years, a company in China named Zhejiang Bosun New Material & Tech Co., Ltd. in major technological breakthroughs ,is very novel form of packaging , is well received by consumers.

    Tea leaves in tea packaging are peel off end, in recent years by means of business and gatherings,deducting Chinese tea culture into another social culture with exquisite and noble love.

    The demand of the market has also led to the development of various types of production equipment. From material suppliers to CNC press machines, peel off end making machine, visual inspection machine, stamping box machine, filling and sealing machine, etc.,  complete supply chain has been formed and technology is more mature.

    Under the development trend of food safety and environmental protection, the material suppliers and the peel off end making machine are technically difficult. At present, Amcor Limited Company and China's one named Huzhou Jinjie Industry Co., Ltd. Is supplier of coating materials. Peel off end making machine, the previous technology is in the hands of SOUDRONIC AG in Switzerland,.Now, Hangzhou Sunking machinery Co., Ltd. Since 2006, after years of hard work, independent research and development, has mastered the technology of peel off end making machine and become a famous Chinese company in international metal packaging industry.

    Metal pails and drums are two storage containers that are similar in function, but vary in capacity and the pail drum components used to make them. Notice that pails hold only 7 gallons or less, while steel drums can hold far more. Also, the higher the gauge size of the material, the thinner it is. Pails are made up of 22-24 gauge metal while steel drums are composed of 20 gauge and under making them stronger. Pails typically have bails or handles attached to them for ease of carrying while drums do not.

    Many components that make up a steel drum, which is a much more complex design. Items such as fittings are indeed part of each item, though not labeled on both illustrations. These are the openings of the containers, which make it possible to pour out the contents of the container, and typically come in 3/4", 1-1/2“ &  2" sizes in both the Rieke and Tri-Sure brands. Other components include ears, which are attached to can or pail to hold bails/handles; beads (rolling hoops), which are rounded depressions on the surface of a container to improve its performance and the chime, which is a sort of “lip” on the top or bottom of the pail or drum.


    All metal containers must meet certain standards. The most important of these is compliance with UN Regulations. Such regulations mandate that steel pails and drums used in the U.S. need to comply with Department of Transportation standards if they are to be used in the transport of hazardous materials (Hazardous Materials Regulations Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards).

    To manufacture steel drums, plants complete the process during a formation phase. To start, the sheet metal to be used in making each drum enters an edge grinder, a machine that rids sheets of jagged edges, smoothing them instead. The steel sheets then enter a bender, which has a cylindrical mold, proceeding to curve and bend the metal.

    Next, various welding processes are employed. Once the metal is bent, it is fed by a worker into a spot welding machine, which begins to connect the two ends of the metal sheet into a tube by welding several points along the edge. After this, the two somewhat connected ends are seamed together completely by entering a seam welding machine, welding up and down the entire joint of sheet ends.

    Once the basic body of the drum has been created, it undergoes a rigorous manipulation process. The flanging operation includes feeding the drum into flange insertion machine to create rim indentations and edges on the top and bottom of the container. Following the creation of these edges, drums enter a bead expander, a machine that takes the drum horizontally and expands beads or rolling hoops around the circumference of the container. These hoops are created by cranking rods around the inside of the drum and serve to strengthen the body of the item. These outward facing hoops or beads are combined with inward facing circumferential indentations along both the top and bottom of each drum. The indentations are corrugated and are created with a corrugating machine.

    Now that the body has been created to the above specifications, the bottom piece of the container must be created and then connected. Drum bottoms first go through a cutting and embossing process. The bottoms are stamped down and cut in a pressing machine using special dies/molds. Once the container bottoms have been made, they enter a pre curler, a machine which smoothes the edges of each bottom piece to prepare it for seaming to the drum body. Ready to be added to containers, bottom pieces enter a seaming machine along with a drum body which rotates and presses the two pieces together. The now-seamed item prevents leakage of materials that the container will eventually hold.

    A freestanding container now formed, it’s time to add a top piece to the drum. Drum tops are formed in a similar manner as bottoms.  Once created, drum tops must be punched via a machine which will punch out holes in specific sizes and positions. These holes will hold flanges to be inserted next. The flange insertion process involves bending the insides of metal rings within a flange fitting die set/mold machine and inserting them into the drum openings/holes. These openings will later be the point at which drum contents are poured into or out of the container. When all is said and done, the top, now complete with flanged openings, is seamed to the body in a process not unlike that for bottom seaming to create a functional container. This completes the basic steel drum.

    Optional processes are employed, however, in steel drum production, depending on preference and end usage. Each drum may enter a paint booth machine, in which the drums are fed horizontally and rotated while the machine sprays and coats the drum exterior with paint. To complete the paint process, the containers are cooked in an oven to help dry and bring the paint to the correct shade.

    Much goes into understanding how metal containers work and how they are made. As these items are fairly large storage containers, both pails and drums do get most of their use in industrial settings such as holding chemicals, paints, coatings and petroleum products. Metal containers afford us many benefits as well, including capacity and strength.

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  Glass vs. Plastic Baby Bottles
Napisane przez: qhrtghte - 3 godzin(y) temu - Forum: Photoshop - Brak odpowiedzi

Decades ago, the only baby bottle available to parents is made of glass. But glass was heavy and breakable. So when plastic bottles came along that were lighter and shatter-proof, the glass bottle became almost obsolete.
        However, recent reports that a type of plastic found in baby bottles might cause potentially harmful changes in developing babies has left parents wondering if perhaps old-fashioned glass wasn't such a bad thing after all.
        Which is safer, glass or plastic? Here is some background on baby bottles, along with tips on how to choose -- and use -- bottles safely and effectively.
        Baby Bottle Worries
        The problem with glass bottles is pretty obvious -- drop one on the floor in the middle of a late-night feeding, and you'll have a roomful of shattered glass to clean up. Glass is also heavy and cumbersome. On the upside, glass bottles are sturdy, and they don't contain any chemicals that could potentially get into the baby's formula.
        Plastic baby bottles are lightweight, strong, and unbreakable. In 2012, the FDA banned the use of bisphenol A in the manufacture of baby bottles and sippy cups. There were concerns that the chemical in polycarbonate plastic could lead to certain cancers, changes in the brain and reproductive system, and early puberty. All baby bottles and sippy cups sold in the USA are now BPA-free.
        In 2013, the FDA supported a food additive amendment to end the use of bisphenol A-based epoxy resins in the lining of formula cans. Manufacturers had abandoned the use of BPA in those maternal and child products, so the move was largely supportive.
        Choosing a Baby Bottle
        There are essentially four types of baby bottles: plastic, plastic with disposable liners, plastic with glass liners, and all glass.
        The ban on BPA means you can confidently buy new plastic baby bottles, knowing that they are free of the potentially harmful chemical. If you are using older plastic bottles, for example bottles given to you by family members, check the recycling symbol on the bottom.
    Is sippy cup a definite no-no?

    If you can manage without a sippy cup, great. My son was exclusively breastfed and transitioned directly to tumbler. No bottles or sippy cups for him.

    However, it is quite ok to use sippy cups during the bottle to cup transition period for a month or so. Then the children should be moved to regular tumblers or straw cups.

    Also, care should be taken that sippy cups are only used for travel, or when spills are not acceptable. When children are at home, they can use a regular tumbler or cup.

    Benefits of straw cups for toddlers

    Straw cups can be introduced to a baby from 9 months onwards. In a few months, they will develop the skills to drink from a straw without difficulty.  But make sure that your baby doesn’t suck too much liquid too quickly as this can cause her to choke and cough. This can be done by using a thinner straw or a thicker liquid like milkshake.

    The muscles used for drinking from a straw are the same muscles that are used to develop a better swallowing pattern and for uttering some speech sounds. This is the reason straw drinking is much better than drinking from a sippy cup.

    Though my little champ was already drinking from a tumbler, I thought a spill proof cup would definitely be helpful for travelling. So I bought a straw cup and handed it to my son.

    I still remember that weird moment – when I realized that sucking from a straw was not something that my child knew intuitively…. My cutie pie had no interest in his new possession. The cup got tossed to the back of a shelf.

    How to use a breast pump:

        Like any skill worth having, it might take you a bit of time to get the hang of using a breast pump. The key is to be patient, even if you’re not able to express as much as you’d like right away. After all, a breast pump won’t stimulate the same feelings in you as your baby does. But, withtime, your body will usually learn to trigger your let-down reflex when you pump, and the quantity of milk you express should increase.
        1: There’s no need to rush to start pumping…
        In the first four weeks, you and your baby work together to initiate and build your milk supply. If your baby is healthy and breastfeeding is going well, you won’t need a pump to help with this. Pumping is, however, really helpful if you need to be apart from your baby any time (see tip below). If not, enjoy this time with your baby and be reassured that even if you plan to pump regularly in future, there’s no need to ‘train’ your body to express milk in the first few weeks.
        2: …unless your baby is unable to breastfeed
        If your baby can’t feed directly from the breast, perhaps because she’s premature or has special needs, or you are separated for any reason, start double pumping breast milk as soon as you can after the birth.
        Research shows that starting to express within the first few hours (when a healthy newborn would usually have her first breastfeed) helps mums produce a higher volume of milk in the early days and weeks, giving their babies the best chance of being fed exclusively on mother’s milk.
        If you’re expecting your baby (or babies) to be born pre-term, in need of intensive care, or to have a condition that might make breastfeeding difficult, prepare yourself. Learn about expressing, source equipment you might need, and ask a healthcare professional, lactation consultant or breastfeeding specialist for support.
        There will probably be a hospital-grade double breast pump at your hospital or birth facility, so ask staff to show you how to use it. It’s important to remove milk from your breasts whenever your baby would normally drink – this means your breasts will still get the message to make milk. Aim for eight to 10 pumping sessions every 24 hours at first, and continue this frequency once your milk comes in.
    Do Babies Need Teethers?

    Baby teethers help soothe babies' swollen gums when they start teething. Chewing on a teether can provide some comfort to the baby, but there are many other reasons that babies like to put teether toys in their mouth to chew on. Babies generally try to put anything they can get their hands on (some can be dangerous) into their mouth at an early age. This encourages the baby to move their tongue inside their mouth. It helps them become aware of their mouth and strengthen facial muscles, as well as aid in speech production.

    Teether buying tips:

    Teethers made from rubber, silicone, plastic, or wood are available in the market. They come in different shapes, colors, sizes, and textures. They are typically made easy for the baby to hold on to. It is advised to buy toys that are specifically meant for teething. Teethers that are liquid-filled or have plastic objects that could break, cause injury, or choking should be avoided. The teethers should be phthalate and BPA (bisphenol A) free because these chemicals can be harmful to the baby. Several teethers are labeled as nontoxic but still contain BPA. Hence, parents should be careful when buying teethers. The teethers should also contain nontoxic pigments.

    Cleaning teethers:

    Teethers should be cleaned regularly and should not be shared between babies. The teether can be washed with soap and water or washed in the dishwasher every day. Teethers can be sanitized using wipes during the day.

    Selecting an Infant Toothbrush

    The ADA recommends you begin brushing your child's teeth as soon as they erupt (usually around six months). Brushing is essential because decay and cavities can happen as early as your child's first tooth. There are toothbrushes made for infants and toddlers. They are small and have extra-soft bristles, so they won't irritate your baby's gums. Your dental professional will guide you regarding the best toothbrush and toothpaste to use. Here are some options to consider:Teething brushes for babies and finger toothbrushes for toddlers are great for soothing sore gums during teething. Refrigerate them for added relief. Plus, it helps your baby or toddler get used to toothbrushing.Choose the right size for your child. Select a toothbrush that fits comfortably in your child's mouth. Infant and toddler toothbrushes usually have smaller, slightly rounder heads.Select a baby toothbrush style that has a chunkier handle and a no-slip grip. This helps with manual dexterity and makes it easier for your growing baby to grab and get used to holding.Electric toothbrushes are a great idea as your child grows. You can find musical or cartoon character themed kid versions for extra fun that will lead to at least twice daily brushing and on the way to a good oral care regime.

                When to Add Toothpaste
                According to the ADA, you should incorporate toothpaste into your child's oral care as soon as the first tooth appears. Use a tiny smear (grain of rice) of fluoride toothpaste for children younger than three years old.
                It's never too early to start a good oral care routine. Start right away with your baby. Use the right toothbrush and the right amount of toothpaste. You will enjoy many firsts with your baby, including that first tooth. Make sure to contact your dental care professional for an appointment as soon as it comes in.
    A Guide to Bottle Nipple Sizes: How to Choose the Right Level

    Baby bottle nipples aren't one size fits all. Here's how to choose a nipple based on your little one's age and desired flow level.

    Many new parents are surprised to learn that bottle nipples aren't one size fits all. Indeed, there are multiple nipple "levels" that correlate with your baby's age and desired milk flow. Knowing when to size up or size down can be a bit confusing, so we compiled this guide to understanding baby bottle nipple levels.

    What are Nipple Levels?

        Manufacturers categorize nipple levels by a baby's age; you can usually find this information on the product packaging. Here's a general breakdown, though the exact levels might vary between brands.
        Level 0: Preemie
        Level 1: Newborn (0-3 months)
        Level 2: Babies 3-6 months
        Level 3: Babies 6 months and older
        Level 4: Babies 9 months and older
        Nipple levels differ based on flow rate (how quickly your baby can get milk). Young babies take in smaller amounts at a time, so they need nipples with slower flow. These "level one" nipples tend to mimic breastfeeding because they require similar muscles. As babies grow, they drink more milk at a quicker pace, so they usually upgrade to nipples with a quicker flow.

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  Difference between PP Board and PVC Board
Napisane przez: qhrtghte - 3 godzin(y) temu - Forum: Photoshop - Brak odpowiedzi

The difference between the PP board and[url=http://www.hzrd-yl.com/pvc-board/] PVC board
cannot be confused. Most people think there is no difference between pp board and PVC board, and they often think they are the same. Otherwise, it is not the same from the materials of these two kinds of boards. The effect is different. How to distinguish the difference between PP board and PVC board?

    PVC board is also called decorative film and adhesive film. The raw material is a sheet made of PVC with a honeycomb mesh structure in cross-section, which belongs to a vacuum plastic film. Widely used in building materials, packaging, medicine and so on.

    PP board is a light general-purpose plastic that meets national health standards. It is characterized by odorless, odorless, and low density. There is no problem with boiling hot water. It can be used for a long time without distortion when the temperature reaches 100 degrees, and it can be steam-sterilized when the temperature reaches 120 degrees. Good electrical insulation properties, not absorbing water. Good chemical stability, it is difficult to chemically react with most chemicals. Finally, PP is resistant to corrosion, acid, and alkali. There are also shortcomings, not resistant to low temperatures, and easy to age in low-temperature environments. The solution is to separate the modified and added antioxidants.

    The heat resistance of the PVC sheet and the heat resistance of the PP sheet are shown once compared. The PVC sheet softens at the beginning of 80 degrees, differentiates at the beginning of 130 degrees, and releases HCL gas. Compared with the electrical insulation performance of PP board, it belongs to medium and low voltage and low-frequency insulation, but PVC can withstand most inorganic acids, alkalis, salts, most organic solvents and so on.

    The Benefits of PVC Walls

    When it comes to our homes, many people try to keep up-to-date with current interior design trends whilst ensuring that they’re practical and visually attractive.

    PVC wall panels are becoming increasingly popular for this reason. Simply put, these panels, made of PVC material, can come in a variety of patterns and designs and are becoming preferential over other wall alternatives such as tiles or paint.

    Where can PVC panels be used?

    There are a variety of places in which PVC panels can be installed around the home. One of the most popular is the bathroom, where the panels can be installed on the ceiling or floor. Bathroom PVC panels can also be used to create a wet room.

    Along with their popular use in bathrooms, PVC panels can also be used on kitchen walls. Their easy-to-clean nature means that any spillages can be wiped and removed instantly without leaving a permanent mark.

    The advantages of PVC walls

    PVC panels provide homeowners with many benefits, including:


    Due to their material, this type of wall panel is easy to clean. Any marks or stains on the panel can be removed instantly with a damp cloth and some dish soap, making them last much longer than other bathroom walling solutions.

    PVC panels are also much more hygienic than other wall types. This is because once they have been installed in your bathroom or kitchen, the panels are mildew-resistant and prevent bacteria from growing.

    Because PVC panels are such low maintenance, they’re a fantastic alternative for busy homeowners, who are looking to reduce the time they spend cleaning traditional tiled walls.

    Easy installation

    Unlike tiles, the traditional wall of choice for older properties, PVC panels are extremely easy to install. So much so that if you have a bit of DIY knowledge, you could even install them yourself!

    This easy installation comes as a result of the panels covering a much larger surface area than tiles. They don’t require grout to be used, making them a fantastic alternative to tiled bathroom walls.

    Variety of designs

    PVC wall panels can come in a wide range of styles, colours and effects, meaning that there’s always a solution to complement and enhance the current interior design of your room.

    And, because PVC can come in wood-effect and tile-effect panels, you’re able to experience the advantages of PVC panels whilst still enjoying the appearance of traditional wall designs!

            What is Foam PVC Board?
            Foam PVC Board is a lightweight, rigid material used primarily in the manufacture of signs and displays. It is considered robust for outdoor use as it is immune to rain and resistant to sunlight and wind.
            The material is made from polyvinyl and polyurea which are mixed together under controlled conditions. The mixture is then poured into a mould, which is sealed using clamps. It is then heated in a large press, after which a slab of solid material emerges.
            Finally, the material then undergoes a hot bath in order to expand it to a final density and it is then cured.
            All of our foam PVC boards are printed directly to substrate using UV fade-resistant and waterproof inks.
            PVC foam board is available in a range of thicknesses from 1mm to 25mm and used for a wide range of applications including interior and exterior signage, exhibition stands,
    What is Expanded PVC Foam Board?

    Expanded PVC foam board, also known as expanded polyvinyl chloride (PVC), is a lightweight, rigid form of expanded foam polyvinyl chloride. It is commonly used for commercial purposes like digital and screen printing, laminating, vinyl lettering, signage, and more.  Eco-friendly and non-toxic expanded PVC sheets provide strength, durability, and flame and chemical resistance while remaining easy to cut and shape.

    How is Expanded PVC Foam Board Made?

    Expanded PVC foam board may come in a variety of different densities; as a result, the raw ingredients used to make the plastic are mixed together under controlled conditions and then dispensed into a mold based on the desired application. The mold is then sealed, clamped shut, and placed in a large press where it is then heated. Finally, the material is expanded in a hot water bath to reach its final destiny and cured. Once cured, the blocks are cut into sheets of various thicknesses. An expanded PVC foam board can be cut to size as easily as wood, softened and shaped to fit a specific need.

    Not to Be Confused with Foam Board

    Expanded PVC foam board is often confused with foam board, but don’t get it twisted, there are vast differences between these two materials!  Foam board or foamcore, consists of polystyrene foam and can have an outer facing of paper on either side. It is frequently used for light duty, indoor applications. It is also popular to use as backing material in picture framing or in photography as a reflector to bounce light. Expanded PVC foam board is super durable, light, and flexible and made from a polyvinyl chloride. Unlike foam board, PVC boards are available in varying thicknesses and may be printed on either side. They are also excellent to use in outdoor applications since they are strong and resistant harsh weather.  Foam board is meant for indoor projects as it tends to melt away and dissolve when mixed with outside elements, glue, and certain types of paint. Expanded PVC foam board lasts longer than foam board is a preferred choice for signage, yard signs, menu boards, directional signs, and more.Expanded PVC foam board is relatively resistant to chemical abrasion and has low water absorption. This ultimately makes it ideal for both indoor and outdoor use—and is commonly used for outdoor applications, such as signage, because it is resistant to the damaging effects of rain, wind, and sunlight. PVC foam is also lightweight, meaning it can be transported more easily than alternatives like glass, wood, or metal. It can also be an affordable option for those who want to provide corrosion and flame resistance.

    Because of its strength and durability, expanded PVC foam boards are a good alternative to similar materials like polycarbonate plastic that may be more prone to scratching. In addition, their resistance to chemical damage makes them ideal compared to other plastics, like acrylic for example, that may be damaged when using powerful cleaners.

    Perhaps the most common use for expanded PVC foam boards is signage–specifically for outdoor usage where durability against corrosion is crucial. When business owners need a sign that can stand the test of time outside in the elements, they often turn to expanded PVC foam boards.

    Once again, because of its durability, it isn’t uncommon to find PVC foam boards for use as wall paneling or office furniture. It can also be utilized for photo mounting.

    In retail space, an expanded PVC foam board may be used for an exhibit booth, signage or a display. PVC foam sheets also come in a wide range of colors, making it more versatile option for commercial applications that call for durability, as well as pleasing aesthetics.

    Whether you’re interested in a strong plastic for promotional materials or interior design in an office space, expanded kitchen PVC panels may be the perfect solution for your needs.

    5 Reasons to Say Yes to PVC Wall & Ceiling Panels

    PVC panels are being popularly used as a cladding material for both walls and ceilings. They are versatile and can be used as an alternative to mineral fibre materials such as gypsum or POP. They can replace wall tiles in the bathroom and can also be used as a decorative wall cladding instead of materials such as MDF or wallpaper. So, if you are looking for an alternative to these conventional materials, then find out whether PVC wall and ceiling panels are the right way to go.

    1. Available in multiple options

    PVC wall and ceiling panels are available in a variety of colours, patterns and textures.

    These panels are also available as 3D sheets that give a decorative look to the wall, as in this example. The PVC sheets are available in both small sizes (the joint lines are visible on installation) and large sizes that give a seamless look to the overall design of the wall.

    2. Lightweight and durable

    PVC panels are a lightweight, strong and highly durable factory-manufactured material.

    They are very easy to transport, handle and install at site and do not create a dusty environment during installation.

    Advertising PVC panels can last for years without warping or bending.

    3. Highly water-resistant

    PVC wall and ceiling panels are made of a waterproof material which makes these panels highly resistant to water.

    The PVC panels are best suited for cladding the ceilings and walls of moisture-laden areas – for instance, bathrooms, basements, garages – which are prone to dampness.

    Another advantage is that these panels are fixed to each other with an interlocking system which prevents the entry of water.

    Since PVC panels are resistant to dampness they do not support mould or mildew growth.

    4. Low in maintenance

    PVC panels are very easy to clean. Routine cleaning involves just wiping with a damp cloth.

    The polyurethane layer of these panels gives a smooth and a plain surface to the board, which prevents the accumulation of dirt.

    Another advantage is that PVC panels are highly resistant to fading due to sunlight because of the presence of non-yellowing agents such as titanium dioxide in their chemical composition.

    5. Budget friendly

    PVC wall and ceiling panels are affordable, budget friendly and are recyclable.

    The best part about PVC panels is that once installed, the wall or ceiling is ready to use and does not require to be finished with paint or varnish.

    PVC panels are fixed with a tongue-and-groove system which ensures a fast and easy installation. Hence, a single panel can get replaced if it gets damaged.

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  Solar Street Lights vs Traditional Street Lights
Napisane przez: qhrtghte - 3 godzin(y) temu - Forum: Photoshop - Brak odpowiedzi

Solar street light and other solar products have grown in popularity over the years. Unlike traditional sources of light, solar lights don’t harm the environment. This is the reason why a lot of people are switching to this technology for their lighting needs. Moreover, solar lights do not rely on electricity providers; thus, you become spared from hefty electric bills.

    Solar street lights are outdoor light devices that are activated through the photovoltaic or PV panels. They have a rechargeable battery that can be loaded with electrical power when detecting light from a source such as the Sun.

    If you want to know more information about solar varieties, communicate with a China light manufacturer. Now, let’s compare the attributes of solar lighting and traditional lighting.


    It is widely known that for solar products, you will be required a costly initial investment. Hence, traditional street lights are much cheaper. However, in the long run, solar street lights turn out to be a better investment than the traditional ones due to all the expenses you will have to pay for in order to maintain the performance of your lights.

    Installation and maintenance are generally costly, but solar street lights do not require regular maintenance nor a replacement. There is only a need to keep them clean and away from dust.

    As for traditional street lights, they necessitate the setting up of electric poles, which can be very expensive. They need to be maintained regularly too, which will incur further costs.

    Efficiency and Luminance

    In terms of visibility, solar-powered lights closely simulate the sunlight as they have built-in LEDs. These LED lights give you the option to alter the CRI or color rendering index into the color of light that you desire. This improves visibility at night.

    On the other hand, traditional street lights typically possess metal halide lamps within. These high-intensity discharge lamps offer most of their light from the electric arc inside a compact emanation tube. Unfortunately, these cannot beat the visibility that solar-powered lights can provide you with. Solar lamps use LEDs or light-emitting diodes that surpass CFLs or compact fluorescent lamps in harnessing more energy and producing brighter light.


    Traditional lights last for approximately an average of 5,000 to 8000 hours or less than a year of usage whereas solar LED lights can live for 5 to 7 years. This notion always puts solar-powered lights ahead of the conventional lights.


    Solar street lights depend less on conventional energy and the national grid. For dusk to dawn lighting operations, solar products are totally reliable. Their off-grid nature equates to almost zero maintenance and low operational costs. Through the power cuts and grid disruption, these lights remain illuminated.

    Meanwhile, traditional street lights are always affected by grid failures and power cuts due to their being connected to the energy reserve.

    Good Impact on the Environment

    All in one solar street light poses no threat to the environment and its people. No fire can be ignited due to a lack of electrical wirings. In addition to that, accidents such as strangulation, overheating, and electrocution will never take place as well. They give off a lower quantity of carbon footprint than that of the traditional lights; thereby, making them eco-friendly.

    On the contrary, traditional lights generate illumination merely from electricity which gets disrupted every occurrence of grid failure. The main advantage of solar street lights is it uses renewable energy from the sun, whereas traditional lights rely on electricity generated from nonrenewable fossil fuels and limited by power outages.


    How do you increase the performance of a modern smart solar street lamp? Manage your lights remotely using a software solution. Observe which hours the pedestrian frequency peaks and drops. Once known, adjust the lighting schedules of solar lights accordingly.

    How do they work day and night? Solar cells in the PV panels of a solar street light convert the heat of the sun (solar energy) to electricity (electrical energy). Afterward, the solar energy is stored in the rechargeable battery. When the dark starts crawling in, solar lights operate using the energy stored in the battery. The few things that make solar in need of maintenance are these: maintenance of the smart battery control systems, minor preventive maintenance, assessment of design, and performance.

    Traditional street lights consume more electricity and require more maintenance and repair from time to time. Operational costs are higher as well.

    Weather-Proof Lights

    Lastly, one of the major concerns in choosing a street light is its durability. How can it stand still amidst the storm? Solar street lamps are weather-proof and water-proof. It’s not a problem if they do not receive sunlight for a few days, they can utilize the rest of the stored solar energy converted into electrical energy.

    Traditional street lights, on the other hand, are not primarily designed to completely stand extreme weather conditions. Although some have a feature that can withstand varying kinds of weather, others are easily damaged by constant typhoons.

    To summarize, solar-powered LED lights are considered one step ahead of the traditional lights. Today, lights with smart technology are in demand. There is no doubt that they can provide more than what is needed by users. Solar street lights also encourage activities such as walking, cycling, going to parks, etc. They increase the productivity of people and visibility at night.

    5 Common Myths about LED Street Lighting

    The potential effects of LED street lighting on health and the environment have been a hot topic of discussion over the last year. As this conversation has evolved, so too have many misperceptions and mischaracterizations of the facts on LEDs. We’ve assembled an array of helpful resources on the topic to help shed some light  and are clarify some of the most common myths on LED streetlights.

    Myth: LED streetlights are more harmful to humans and animals than other kinds of streetlights.

    LED streetlights are no more harmful to humans and animals than other kinds of streetlights. The concern is not the type of light source, but the amount of emitted light that falls in the short-wavelength, often referred to as the “blue” part of the spectrum. And, unlike other types of streetlights, LED streetlights actually offer the potential to control the amount of short-wavelength light that they emit.

    Myth: All short-wavelength light is harmful to humans and animals.

    On the contrary, short-wavelength light is a fundamental component of the natural world. It’s present in sunlight and has been shown to play an important role in a number of physiological processes, such as affecting circadian rhythm (our 24-hour “biological clock” that controls sleep/wake cycles). The concern is that too much nighttime exposure to short-wavelength light may disrupt sleep patterns and have other undesirable effects.

    Myth: LED lighting emits more short-wavelength light than do other lighting technologies.

    It’s true that early LED lighting products tended to have greater levels of short-wavelength content because the technology was still in its initial stages of development. Tremendous advances since then, however, mean that today’s LEDs can be designed to emit as little, or as much, short-wavelength light as desired, without excessive drop-off in efficiency or other aspects of performance. LEDs also offer much greater control over where the light falls. This means they can often meet the same illumination requirements as conventional streetlights while emitting much less light – thus reducing even further any short-wavelength content.

    Myth: Street lighting should never emit any short-wavelength light.

    Most street lighting situations benefit from having at least some amount of short-wavelength content. Short wavelengths are a key component of the visible light spectrum, with benefits ranging from aesthetics to safety. White light sources that contain short wavelengths, for example, can show the colors of objects more naturally, aid in identification of people and objects, improve the contrast between an object and its background, and enhance peripheral vision at the low levels of illuminance that typically characterize street lighting.

    Myth: Communities are better off with conventional street lighting.

    For the last several decades, most street lighting in the United States has used high-pressure sodium (HPS) technology, which emits orange-yellowish light. HPS street lighting is being replaced by street lighting technologies that emit “white” light – primarily LED, due to its higher efficiency and longer life. All white-light technologies – including LED – emit more short-wavelength light than HPS. In addition to lasting longer and being more efficient – which by the way provide substantial energy and cost savings – LED street lighting also offers other potential benefits. For example, unlike other types of street lighting, LED systems can be adjusted to provide only the level of illumination needed at any given time, and can also offer a high degree of control over the direction in which light is emitted. This makes it much easier to reduce glare, light trespass (the spillover of light into areas where it’s not wanted), and uplight (which contributes to the phenomenon of “sky glow” that reduces visibility of stars in the night sky).

    LED street light can play a critical role in avoiding unintended consequences to humans and wildlife – as long as care is taken to make sure the light is directed only where it is needed, with minimal glare, and that it emits a spectrum that supports visibility, safety, and health.

    LED Floodlights: the Advantages

    Floodlighting has become an important part of security for homes and businesses alike. Whether connected to a motion detector or for use to light a garden at night, flood lighting has become an integral part of security in today’s society.

    Homeowners and businesses have enough to deal with in these harsh economic times than needing to worry about changing floodlights. That’s why LED flood light offers the client not only an exceptional dispersion of light but also a bounty of advantages, which are only available when you use LED Floodlights.

    One of the best advantages of using LED Floodlights is the life expectancy; they last for thirty times longer than standard halogen floodlights. This reveals a variety of advantages: you will have more free space as you would not need to stock up on replacement halogen bulbs. Also the main power involved in swapping out defective halogen bulbs can be time consuming and expensive, especially if running a business which requires the use of floodlighting. Thus purchasing LED Floodlights works to be extremely cost effective for the client. LED Floodlights repay your investment with longer life and an exceptional reduction in electricity costs.

    With rising utility prices everyone is looking to save money. Through switching to an LED Floodlights customers will see a fall in their electricity consumption and in turn bills. The LED Floodlight will consume a significantly reduced number of watts compared to a halogen Floodlight, providing the client with an exceptional visual performance as well as low cost electricity bills. LED Floodlights feature economical illumination technology. This technology is also known as Light Emitting Diodes (LED light bulbs); this allows you to have exceptional brightness with a low power consumption.

    LED Floodlights have a higher lumen output than standard Floodlights. One LED Floodlight can have the same effect as two or even three standard Floodlights. This is a staggering statistic and it means that with the longer life expectancy and the exceptional brightness less room would be needed for storing your existing halogen equivalent floodlights. It also now means that security for your home and business is now affordable and is most importantly cost effective.

    It is important to note when looking to install floodlights for outside use that they are IP65 rated. This means that they have been designed and tested to withstand weather conditions and are safe for outside use. This special rating of IP65 is not to be overlooked as it is essential to the performance of the light when used outside.

    Portable floodlights are also available on the market and our ideal for workers at night. By incorporating a battery to floodlights workers can experience high quality LED lighting by only consuming a fraction of the electricity of an ordinary halogen floodlight. This has many advantages such as safety for the workers as a clear bright illumination. Also these would need to be IP65 rated also as even in the most testing weather conditions the clear, crisp light will continue to emit.


    Solar energy is the technology used to harness the sun's energy and make it useable. As of 2011, the technology produced less than one tenth of one percent of global energy demand.

    Many are familiar with so-called photovoltaic cells, or solar panel, found on things like spacecraft, rooftops, and handheld calculators. The cells are made of semiconductor materials like those found in computer chips. When sunlight hits the cells, it knocks electrons loose from their atoms. As the electrons flow through the cell, they generate electricity.

    On a much larger scale, solar-thermal power plants employ various techniques to concentrate the sun's energy as a heat source. The heat is then used to boil water to drive a steam turbine that generates electricity in much the same fashion as coal and nuclear power plants, supplying electricity for thousands of people.

    How to Harness Solar Power

    In one technique, long troughs of U-shaped mirrors focus sunlight on a pipe of oil that runs through the middle. The hot oil then boils water for electricity generation. Another technique uses moveable mirrors to focus the sun's rays on a collector tower, where a receiver sits. Molten salt flowing through the receiver is heated to run a generator.

    Other solar technologies are passive. For example, big windows placed on the sunny side of a building allow sunlight to heat-absorbent materials on the floor and walls. These surfaces then release the heat at night to keep the building warm. Similarly, absorbent plates on a roof can heat liquid in tubes that supply a house with hot water.

    Solar energy is lauded as an inexhaustible fuel source that is pollution- and often noise-free. The technology is also versatile. For example, solar cells generate energy for far-out places like satellites in Earth orbit and cabins deep in the Rocky Mountains as easily as they can power downtown buildings and futuristic cars.

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  The Features of an Automatic Filling Machine
Napisane przez: qhrtghte - 3 godzin(y) temu - Forum: Photoshop - Brak odpowiedzi

Overflow fillers, gravity fillers, piston filling machine and other liquid fillers all vary in the way that they move product into a bottle or container. However, the automatic versions of these machines almost always have certain features in common. These features are intended to add efficiency, consistency and reliability to the packaging equipment. Below are a few of the most common features of found on Liquid Packaging Solutions' bottle fillers.

    Heavy Duty and Portable Stainless Steel Frame

    For consistent and reliable fills, the machine must be stabile throughout the process. The heavy duty stainless steel frame protects against shifting, vibrating and other movement that might effect the volume or the level of the fill, while also avoiding splashes and spills. The stainless steel material is compatible with a vast majority of products, though there are exceptions. When corrosive liquids are run on the machinery, other construction materials may be used for the frame, including HDPE. Ultimately, the material used will be that material which will better extend the useful life of the equipment.

    Easy Adjustments From Height to Heads

    Many packagers fill more than a single product, or at the very least fill into bottles of multiple sizes and shapes. Changing over from one product or bottle to another means stopping production on the liquid filler. These machines include simple adjustments to minimize downtime and maximize production. Fill heads can typically be moved using simple fingertip adjustment knobs, while power height comes standard on automatic equipment, allowing up and down movement with the flip of a switch. Even auxillary equipment such as power conveyors include knob adjustments or other simple components for railing and other changes. Other adjustments, such as time and delay settings, can easily be made from the operator control panel, discussed in more detail below.

    PLC with Touch Screen Controls

    Along with easy adjustments to the components of the liquid filler, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and operator interface allow the operators of the equipment to quickly and easily set up indexing times, fill times and other settings for the machinery. The panel allows controls to be centrally located and may also include controls for other equipment such as power conveyors, turntables and more. One of the best features of the PLC is the ability to record recipes for product and bottle combinations. Once all settings have been input for a combination, the combination can be saved and recalled at a later date, making changeover that much easier.

    Vision Systems

    Automatic fillers are normally one of many machines on an automated packaging line. So in addition to performing efficiently and effectively, these machines must work with other equipment such as the conveyor system noted above, capping machines, labelers and any other machine on the system. An anti-bottle back up vision system helps the filling machine with communication. These vision systems are used to ensure jams and back ups downstream do not have a negative impact on the filler. If a jam is detected, the liquid filler will usually complete the current cycle and then cease cycles until the issue is cleared. In addition, automatic machines include a no bottle, no fill vision system to ensure that the cycle will only begin when the correct number of bottles have entered the fill zone. Depending on the filler, this vision system can help to avoid messy spills while also ensuring maximum efficiency. Other custom vision systems may be used with the filling equipment if the need arises.

    Two to Sixteen Heads with an Upgradeable Design

    Automatic liquid fillers will normally be manufactured with anywhere from two to sixteen fill heads, depending on the production demand for the product or products being run. The design of the two head filling machine, however, will usually include the ability to easily add heads in the future. In other words, the machines are upgradeable to up to sixteen fill heads, regardless of the number of heads on the equipment when delivered to the packager's production floor. This design allows the equipment to grow with the packager, extending the useful life of the machine and saving the packager from needing new equipment every time sales increase.

    While there are many other features that may be added to a used filling machine, the features noted above are normally standard on all equipment. To learn more about the different filling machines and custom equipment offered by Liquid Packaging Solutions, jump over and browse the filling machinery section our the website.

    Homogenizer, equipped with a set of motorized blades, combine wet grinding/shredding/shearing of the sample matrice together with extraction by swirling/agitation of the sample solution. They are popular in Karl Fischer analyzers, robotic systems and tissue homogenizers.


    A straw and spoon applicator is an automatic machine. It works in a relatively simple way:

            ●    the belt conveys the products from the filling machine at the start of the line
            ●    the applicator sprays the glue
            ●    the application head secures the straw in the desired position
            ●    the product is conveyed to the case packer or the shrink wrapper at the end of the line.
    Thanks to its photocell system, the automatic straw applicator works autonomously, detecting products and downtimes.

    The straw applicator can apply up to 10,000 straws per hour; in the high speed version, the amount increases up to 18,000 straws per hour.

    By adding another drum unit, straws/spoons can be applied on multi-pack formats on a double line, thus doubling machine performance.

    The machine's flexibility enables the application of different types of straws - U-shaped, telescopic, straight - without having to replace mechanical parts. To modify the pace of the straws, a simple and quick replacement of the drum unit is needed instead.


    The best straw applicator on the market is the one perfectly fitting your needs!

    Versatility is therefore key when choosing a straw applicator. The automated system must handle spoons and straws coming in different dimensions and formats (straight, telescopic, U-shaped), providing the option to choose direction and application side. It must also accommodate packages differing in height and volume, as well as multi-pack formats.

    In view of potential product integrations, a must-have feature is the bypass function, which enables alternate applications (one pack comes with a straw, one without).


    Straw and spoon applicators are automatic machines requiring very low maintenance.

    Proper planning is crucial to streamline standard processes, in particular for complex components, such as the glue unit, both for refilling and maintenance operations.

    When handling packed liquids, which require aggressive cleaning to avoid the risk of contamination due to leaks, machines should be equipped with high-quality electronic components, to guarantee safety and reliability over time.

    Ultimately, application precision is another important aspect. The applicator must guarantee a perfect positioning of the straw or spoon over time, to avoid waste and downtimes.


    The philosophy guiding Artema Pack in the planning and production of straw applicators is clear: the machine must adapt to the client's processes and not the other way around.

    Thanks to this approach, the company was involved in complex projects, coming up with innovative solutions, such as applying straws on non conventional materials or positioning them in unusual areas.

    With an Artema Pack straw applicator, you can count on a high-performing and reliable machine, and also on yearlong expertise, which enables us to turn specific needs into solutions.

    Tetra Pak packaging solutions for food and beverages

    Every day, across the world billions of litres of water, milk, juice and other liquid foods are consumed. At Tetra Pak, we have developed a range of packages to protect both the nutritional value and the taste of the products inside. Thanks to tetra pak packer, the packaging and distribution of liquid and food products to the consumer has been greatly facilitated.

    We provide integrated processing, packaging, and distribution solutions for food manufacturing, and offer packaging machines for different packaging alternatives. From our network of production facilities, we also supply packaging material to more than 8,800 packaging machines across the globe.

    Digitalisation is changing the role of packaging. The Connected Package allows food and beverage producers to turn their packages into full-scale data carriers offering increased traceability, and value for each stakeholder in the entire value chain.

    No longer is packaging only about product protection and functionality – it is about connectivity and unleashing unlimited possibilities.

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  Flatbed Trailer Types
Napisane przez: qhrtghte - 3 godzin(y) temu - Forum: Photoshop - Brak odpowiedzi

Flatbed trailers come in all shapes, sizes, and maximum load capacities. Some of the most common types of flatbed trailers and specialized trucking trailers include:

            Lowboy Trailers
            Step Deck Trailers
            Stretch Double Drop Trailers
            Removable Gooseneck Trailers (RGN)
            Conestoga Trailers
            Sidekit Trailers
    It is essential to note the maximum legal load weight of the cargo as well as the dimensions of a particular type for proper and accurate flatbed & specialized trucking rates.

    Each flatbed trailer is different from the other types, and it is essential to note the maximum legal load weight of each. While most of the trailers mentioned in this article are capable of handling loads that exceed the legal dimensions and weights for safety, some states will require a permit and/or have premium charges that will need to be obtained before a shipment can be transported.

    Flatbed trailers are widely used and highly versatile, making them one of the most popular trailers seen on the roads today. Typically, freight is loaded onto the tip, sides, and rear of the flatbed. With this easy loading capability, flatbeds have become one of the cornerstones of today’s trucking industry.

    A flatbed trailer can carry a maximum legal freight weight of 48,000 pounds.

    A lowboy trailer is an unpowered trailer, commonly used to haul freight. With a lowered bed in front of the rear axels, lowboys are designed to transport taller goods that would exceed the height restrictions if carried on a flatbed. Depending on the freight, some states require may permits.

    Lowboy trailers generally have two axles with a maximum load weight of 40,000 pounds. An additional weight capacity of up to 80,000 pounds will depend on the number of axles used (weight of the trailer + weight of the load).

    How Does a Dump Trailer Work?

    Hydraulic dump trailers are the most efficient type of dump trailer, making cleanup significantly easier at the end of a job. Here, we cover the basics of how different hydraulic lift systems function as well as what to consider when buying a dump trailer to help you streamline the decision process.

    Hydraulic Dump Trailer Operation

    Using a dump trailer is more detailed than just towing it to the site, loading it with trash, and hauling it to the dump.

    The most valued feature of the hydraulic dump trailer is its hydraulic lift system for obvious reasons. The hydraulic lifting capabilities allow users to tilt the container in order to dump its contents with very little contact, reducing the risk of puncture wounds and splinters from debris.

    There are three main types of lifting mechanisms:

            Telescopic-style lift - A single cylinder lifts the dump bed of this hydraulic trailer to its full dump angle. Manufacturers typically put this in the center of the dump container’s front end.

            Dual-piston lift - As implied, this system uses two pistons to lift the dump trailer.

            Scissor lift - Most popular. The scissor-like function of one cylinder allows for maximum leverage while dumping and also expands the footprint to help with uneven loads.
An article by Family Handyman notes that the battery life of a hydraulic trailer can be cut in half if the hydraulic system uses it when lowering the dump box. However, the “gravity down” option on some trailers doesn’t utilize the battery, which means you likely won’t need to replace it as often.

    Rigins of the semi-trailer truck

    At the dawn of the 20th century, transportation was going through a period of transformation. With the development of the first practical automobile in the late 19th century and invention of Henry Ford’s assembly lines, making cars became more affordable and accessible than ever before, thus thrusting transportation into a new era.

    With automobiles cornering the market, other automotive-based inventions popped up too. A great example of this is the semi trailer. Two different inventors are credited with its creation, each design serving a similar purpose.

    The trailer was a success, so successful in fact that Sibley Sr. had Fruehauf build similar vehicles to use at his lumber yard. Fruehauf called these vehicles “semi trailers.” Fruehauf’s semi trailers were a success, business boomed, and four years later, Fruehauf incorporated his business to form the Fruehauf Trailer Company in 1918.

    Which Material can be delivery by bulk cement powder tanker trailer?

    Bulk Cement Powder tanker semi trailer can loading for coal ash ,cement powder, lime powder ,Mineral powder etc, all the diameter less than 0.1mm . Also we can gave you the tanker trailer delivery for wheat powder as you wanted.

    If you’re interested in expanding your hauling capacity, a cargo trailer is an excellent option. You’ll no longer need to pack your vehicle to the rim while carefully trying not to obstruct the view out of your rear window. You can also stop making multiple trips back and forth due to lack of space. Even better, you don’t have to drape a tarp over exposed supplies in your truck bed to protect them from the elements. Hauling activities will be so much easier with a cargo trailer.

    Cargo trailers are fully enclosed making them a great choice for hauling vehicles and equipment safely. Mountain West Trailers has put together a list of our favorite uses and benefits of owning a cargo trailer. Be sure to stop by our dealership in Heber City, Utah near Salt Lake City, Provo, Wasatch, and Summit County today!

    Variety of Uses

    You’ll be able to tackle an impressive amount of projects with a cargo trailer considering you can pack almost anything inside. For those working in construction or landscaping, you can use the trailer to haul equipment, tools, and materials to a job site. You’ll be able to conveniently pack everything and haul it one trip, which significantly cuts down travel time. If you’re an adrenaline junkie, you can benefit from hauling your powersports vehicle to and from destinations. Campers can pack all of their gear and supplies in the trailer and bring it to the campsite. Cargo trailers can be quite useful to pretty much anyone!

    Gas Trailer fueling solutions are DOT compliant and designed to provide safe storage and transfer of up to 119 gallons of fuel for general aviation and boating, construction, disaster relief, and agriculture.

    “The new Gas Trailer division is a great addition to Robinson and our tradition of delivering quality products that exceed customer’s expectations,” says Sam Thomas, operations manager for Robinson Metal, Inc.

    Robinson will begin production of the Gas Trailer product line this summer at our 185,000 square foot facility on Eisenhower Drive in De Pere, Wisconsin.

    Side dump semi trailer is another type of dump truck, and it allows goods to be unloaded from the side. The main types of cargo transported by this semi-trailer are building materials, such as stone, sand, etc.

    Container Chassis: Everything You Need To Know

    Container chassis come in several types depending on the shipping requirements, designed to accommodate a range of weight load, container sizes and types, and even specialized containers. This one equipment links and carries the weight of several industries together. It is the support system of the entire supply chain network. Read on to know everything about this super-equipment…

    Container chassis is a specially designed container transport trailer or wheeled carrier to transport containers from trucks between terminals, warehouses, and ports. Design-wise, this equipment is a steel frame with tires and axle systems, suspension, brakes, and lighting mechanisms. New-aged chassis also come with other features like ABS, weight sensors, LED lights, GPS tracking systems, etc. Chassis are key links for container movement and transportation.

    Standard chassis are designed to transport standard ISO containers (20ft and 40ft) with two axles. Generally, a tri-axle chassis is needed to carry 20ft containers above the weight of 36,000 lbs or 40ft containers above 44,000 lbs.

    Why You Need a Container Chassis?

    1. Smooth & Secure Shipping

    Containers are securely attached to the chassis, due to which it prevents unnecessary container movements, thus, ensuring safer transportation.

    2. Durability and Easy Transportation

    Even though container chassis are constructed from lighter materials, it is durable enough to load and transport heavy freights with ease.

    3. Suits Different Shipping Requirements

    Container chassis come in different types depending on the specific needs. Thus, companies can choose from a wide range of options based on their shipping needs and preferences.

    4. Quick, Cost-Effective and Offers Timely Delivery

    Container Chassis are built from solid structural materials, capable of loading several containers in one go – making the process quick. Due to timely delivery, extra charges can be prevented, thus making the whole process cost-effective.

    5. Uplifts Customer Satisfaction

    Since the containers are shipped quickly and safely, it improves reliability and amping up the overall customer experience.

    How To Choose The Right Container Chassis?

    Depending on your requirements, businesses can choose the best container chassis for their daily operations. You can consider the following factors:

    ● Usage & Requirements (Industry-specific)

    If you only need to transport containers, chassis modeled specifically for containers are the best. But, if you need to move other types of cargo as well, going for a flatbed container trailer is the best – as it serves a dual purpose. If you need to load/unload cargo at specific places, a chassis trailer with a tilt feature is a great choice.

    ● Number of Axles / Weight Threshold

    Depending on the cargo or container weight, you can choose the number of axles in the chassis. More the number of axles, more the load capacity. For daily usage, 2 or 3 axle chassis are common.

    ● Costs Incurred

    Specialized chassis have higher costs than regular ones. Consider your container specifications and requirements before going for a specialized chassis or chassis trailer.
Container Chassis: Buying or Renting?
Chassis can either be rented or purchased based on your requirements. This also adds to your final costs of shipment.

    If you want to buy a container chassis, costs start from USD 5,000 and can go up to USD 30,000 – varying according to your specifications. However, if you need to rent a chassis, you need to incur an additional charge: Chassis Usage Charge.

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